HISTORY OF 20th CENTURY INTERIOR DECORATION AND FURNITURE — PART 1

The
19th century had exhausted all the vocabulary of the old design, and creative
people in all fields were searching for a new design continent like Columbus.
What they sensibly did was dump what they had consumed, go back to the basics,
and learn about different ways. There was also another application involved.

The
design of the 20th-century furniture marks a clean break with the past.
Something that never happened, even when civilization took over another
civilization.

People
understood the importance of the machine and acknowledged the increasing value
of the machine and the dependence of the final effects of mass manufacturing on
a good initial design suited to the machine and not to the craftsman. Then,
from the late 19th century, the idea of simplicity and the superiority of
feature over shape had spread. Influences of Social and Technology Changes

All these movements were more or less influenced by the
development of furniture design, although they were absorbed a little later,
because painting, sculpture, and architecture, especially painting, were the
spheres in which they were born.

It
is also relevant that various countries have played different roles at
different periods in the development of production techniques. And that. With
their share of the contribution, they have also had an equal influence over
other countries.

                                                               Art Nouveau architecture

Mental
Approach to Design

Another critical aspect was the mental approach towards design: the conceptualization
was unrestricted, the gift of Art Nouveau, but it was not excessive, resulting
in discomfort, a characteristic of Art Nouveau, and because of the explosion of
knowledge and simple connectivity, concepts and styles were borrowed from all
over the world, ranging from high cultures to tribal cultures.

 

Product
of the Revolution in Technology

Quick
and simple connectivity, sophisticated mass production, and popular taste have
allowed the freedom to create a piece in any part of the world. And just to
make a point, people are moving back to some element of old styles or styles
entirely.

 

Development
of furniture in Germany

Germany
has never made any significant contribution to the world of furniture design,
and was perhaps waiting for the beginning of the 20th century. As mentioned
above, the return to fundamentals was introduced, encouraged, promoted, and
distributed through colleges, organizations, and movements. Germany was the
first to make these and available.

 

The
Deutsche Werkbund, 1907.

In
1907, a group of architects, craftsmen, and manufacturers called the Deutscher
Werkbund (Deutscher Werkbund) was set up to create and encourage good furniture
design by working together for this purpose. In order to accomplish this aim,
they separated themselves from the principles of Art Nouveau, and what was
ultimately done was the birth of industrial design.

 

                                                                       Industrial design

Bauhaus,
from 1919 to 1933.

Bauhaus School

Influenced
by the ideals of the Werkbund, architect Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in
1919, a pronounced bow-hows school in Weimar, Germany. What was achieved here
was like the production of the Gobelins under the reign of Louis XIV, but more
intense, powerful, thought-provoking, and lasting.

In
no time did the school become the center of the Modern Movement. The functional,
light, simple and technically sound designs that have been built here have
illuminated the time between the two world wars and are still influential. The
school had the names of the great ones, such as Gropius Mies van der Rohe.
Marcel Breuer, Charles Eames. 

Progress
in the Bauhaus

 Steel Tubular Chair

The
use of non-conventional materials for the construction of computer-friendly
furniture, such as steel tubes, plywood, hardboard, laminated boards, and foam
rubber upholstery was a major development. 

Marcel Breuer

Marcel Breuer created the first
steel tubular chair made of a single piece believed to be inspired by the
curves of his bicycle handlebars. He followed this with a wide range of
furniture, including tables, chairs, and chairs with linen, glass, and wood.

Contribution
of Breuer and Mies

Perhaps the most original aspect of the metal
furniture designed by Mies and Breuer is its application of the cantilever
principle, as they alone, as architects, might think of it. This has helped us
to mix strength and lightness. Mies designed a remarkably elegant cantilever
chair in 1926, and Breuer followed with a more balanced and practical chair two
years later. Breuer’s cantilever S-chair concept was modified for mass
production in the Thanet factory and is now on the market all over the world.

Barcelona Chair
Mies Van Der Rohe

 

Cantilever Chair in 1926

         

Marcel Breuer 

 

In
1929, Mies designed the Barcelona foam rubber upholstered steel tube chair for
the German Pavilion, designed by himself to be a classic.

Closure
of the Bauhaus

Hitler
closed the Bauhaus in 1933, and the principal designers had to flee to the
others.

Countries,
in particular the United States. Switzerland, France, and England have spread
the ideas of the Bauhaus from their adopted nations. And what used to be German
has been international.

The
Bauhaus and his Book

 Book cover

The
Bauhaus has gained success in all aspects of architecture, including graphic
design. The typeface in which this book is printed is based on the typeface
developed by Herbert Bayer at the Bahaus and, for that reason, is called the
Bauhaus.

Modern
Designs

Germany,
like other cultures, is affected by developments in other nations. The concepts
of the Bauhaus still seep the air in order to form what is considered the
“German look”-functional, strong and so well created. German
designers and manufacturers are also renowned for their effective storage
structures for every living area of the workforce.

Furniture
Creation In Netherland

Netherlands
had not made any valuable contributions before the 20th century, but in the
form of a few components or certain types of domestic furniture. Although in
the first third of the 20th century, Germany was the focal point of
revolutionary ideas. The Netherlands became its producer for a small amount of
time due to the efforts of the De Stijl Group.

De
Stijl, 1917

 Art
made by Piet Mondrian

The
painter Piet Mondrian was the founder of the Stijl movement, which, while
short-lived had deeply affected all fields of art and linked subjects.
Mondrian’s art stresses the beauty of shape and structure, and the geometric
nature of primary colors.

Contribution
of de Stijl to furniture design

 Red-Blue” chair

Abstract
geometric shapes, if Mondrian had been translated into the field of decorative
arts without compromising by Gerit Thomas Rietveld and the result was
furniture that was rigid in the extreme, purposely purged of all decorative
creations. The most prominent work of Rietveld is the angular
“Red-Blue” chairs of 1917. The German painter Breuer, who was then at Bauhaus was very fascinated with his approach to architecture.

  Rietveld Schröder House

Furniture
Creation In France 

Previously,
France was the expert of furniture architecture, once again one of the centers
of Art Nouveau, at the beginning of the century, and to some point it existed of
Art Deco.

Art
Deco, 1920-1935.

Poster In 1937

The word derives from the name of the exhibition that took place in Paris in 1925.
L’Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Moderns
introduced the world with a new theme.

 Paris in 1925

Art
Deco, with the spirit of Art Nouveau, borrowed patterns, on the one hand, from
the Empire and the Directoire periods, and on the other hand, from Cubism and
Futurism, and from Chinese and Egyptians, Africans and Mayans, and several
other styles. Somehow, its appeal is so high, at least to some designers and
consumers, that it heals itself on a regular basis. We are moving into what is
now called the Post Modern design, which is very intimate with the spirit of
Art Deco.

Cubism Art

Art
Deco Types

Art
deco, the way it was made, can be defined as Luxurious and Popular, farmer
being built and made for the rich few, and later for the consumer market.

Art
Deco Characteristics

Typical
Art Deco pieces avoided sharply rectangular borders and followed triangular
shapes. Luxury materials and excellent craftsmanship were used and, to show
them, smooth, plain surfaces were left untouched. Tables, particularly dining
tables, were constructed of a single giant central pillar, avoiding four or six
legs. Chairs were made of high back law in Louis XIV fashion which required
lower tables and other arrangements.

New
components

From
here a cocktail table and a cabinet with a heavy Chinese presence appeared. A lot of furniture, particularly bedroom furniture, was built-in, both for
simplicity and utility.

Outstanding
Art Deco Designers

 Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann

The
most typical French deco designer was Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann, whose work easily
met the technical standards set by his colleagues in the 18th century, and in
certain ways, such as the construction of drawers, actually achieved them. More
experimental designers like Pierre Legrain and Marcel Coard occasionally made
furniture inspired by Africans art in carved wood which had emerged before the
war with the paintings of Picasso’s Negro Period.

The
New Revolution in France

France
has always been intrigued by the curve. Baroque, Rococo, Art nouveau, Art Deco
all rejected straight lines, sharp angles, and angularity which are marks of
the new movement and so it is understandable that what France added to it was
by two ex-patriots the swiss-born architect Le Corbusier and Irish born Eileen
Gray.

Contribution
of Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier
 Le grand comfort designed by Le Corbusier, 1928


Architect
Le Corbusier, that is, The Crow designed furniture according to the Bauhaus
concepts, but his parts were difficult to produce and often uncomfortable to
use, but sometimes incredibly elegant to look at. If Breuer and Mie’s most
striking technical contribution was that of a cantilever chair, Le Corbusier’s
was a shape of an armchair with wide cushions and leather, skin, or canvas
upholstery fitted on a tubular steel frame. The moving of the skeleton from the
inside to the outside of the upholstered furniture produced during the last
three decades has illustrated and stressed the role of Corbusier’s style. His
most famous item is the revised edition of the chair lounge.

Chair lounge.

In
this part one we have seen the history of furniture from 1907 to 1940, I hope
you all were curious about the history of Interior Furniture, Ref: Ahmed Kasu.
Stay tuned for part 2 it will be uploaded very soon, till then you can go
through the below blog i.e  History Of Bohemian Style and It’s Connection with INDIA.

https://trishnadesign.blogspot.com/2020/08/bohemian-design-style-its-connection.html

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